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Style and language

The IZA Journals can only accept manuscripts written in English. Spelling should be US English or British English, but not a mixture. The form and content of the manuscript should be checked carefully to avoid the need for corrections at the proof stage. Authors are advised to write clearly and simply, and to have their article checked by colleagues or by a copyediting service.

The IZA Journals will not edit submitted manuscripts for style or language; reviewers may advise rejection of a manuscript if it is compromised by grammatical errors.

Length of articles

Manuscripts should be approximately 10,000 words in length, including footnotes tables, figures and the references (bibliography).

File format

Manuscripts should be submitted in Microsoft Word (DOC, DOCX), Rich Text Format (RTF) or TeX/LaTeX.

Word and RTF manuscripts should take into account the following style template:

  • Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 11-point Times New Roman) for text.
  • Use italics for emphasis.
  • Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.
  • Do not use field functions.
  • Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
  • Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.
  • Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.
  • Formulae are to be numbered consecutively on the right-hand side of the page.

TeX/LaTeX users are recommended to use the SpringerOpen's TeX template and BibTeX stylefile.


Please use no more than three levels of displayed headings.


Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.


Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables.

Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols. Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.


Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. In case the paper has been refereed, the anonymous referee(s) must be mentioned in the acknowledgements. This is a condition for publication.


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